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Operation Gladio is the codename for clandestine "stay-behind" operations of armed resistance that was organized by the Western Union, and subsequently by NATO and the CIA, in collaboration with several European intelligence agencies. The operation was designed for a potential Warsaw Pact invasion and conquest of Europe. While an invasion never happened, some of the anti-communist armed groups engaged in the harassment of left-wing parties, terror attacks, massacres and torture in countries such as Italy. Although Gladio specifically refers to the Italian branch of the NATO stay-behind organizations, "Operation Gladio" is used as an informal name for all of them. Stay-behind operations were prepared in many NATO member and neutral countries such as Italy, Belgium, Denmark, France, Germany, Greece, The Netherlands, Norway, Portugal, Turkey , Austria, Finland, Spain, Sweden and Switzerland.


70mm  x 115mm (2.75'' x 4.52'')

Velcro backing

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